Oceans and coasts
On our beautiful blue planet, the sea covers more than 70% of the surface. Far more species live in the oceans than on land. The marine environment provides livelihoods and food for hundreds of millions of people.
But the world’s oceans, seas and coasts are under severe strain. The biggest threats right now are overfishing, pollution and climate change.
Less than 2% of our oceans are officially protected - something that urgently needs to change. Which is why that’s a key focus of our marine work.
‘Marine Protected Areas’ (MPAs) can help support wildlife, allow fish stocks to be replenished, and provide marine ecosystems and coastal communities with better protection from the impacts of climate change.
Fishing isn’t a problem - overfishing is
Fishing can be a sustainable, renewable resource - but only if it’s properly managed. A collapse in fish stocks through overfishing is devastating for the marine environment and the whole food chain, including us. Sadly, it’s already started happening in some places.
Did you know…
- Three-quarters of all the world’s main fish stocks are now at or beyond unsustainable levels.
- Every year millions of tonnes of ‘bycatch’, including 300,000 mammals, are caught accidentally in fishing equipment
- Around 10% of coral reefs may now be damaged beyond recovery
How we work
We work with governments, industry and communities to protect marine wildlife, the natural environment and the food supply and livelihoods of people who depend on the oceans.
At WWF-UK we’re not just concerned about British or European seas and coastlines - which themselves are actually home to a number of (perhaps surprisingly) diverse and dramatic species and ecosystems.
But the sea connects the whole world in so many ways - not least through the food or goods we buy that are sourced from or transported on the oceans. The fact is, to address the root causes of marine problems, and the unsustainable use of our seas, we need to work at global as well as local levels.
So we’re involved in a number of vital projects all around the world to help protect our oceans…
Where we work - from the poles to the tropics
The Arctic Ocean and Southern Ocean are two of WWF’s largest iconic priority places, covering 73 million sq km across two entire oceans and eight countries. They contain some of the world’s most intact ecosystems, but are at risk from rapid climate change.
The Arctic faces serious pressures from the impacts of climate change and potentially damaging human activities including illegal fishing, oil and gas development and shipping. We are working to protect key habitats, close sensitive areas to the oil and gas industry, and ensure fishing is managed sustainably.
Climate change, pirate fishing and marine pollution are just some of the threats facing the Antarctic and the surrounding Southern Ocean and the many millions of creatures who live there. We’re trying to safeguard the region in a number of ways – including the creation of a 2 million sq km network of protected areas in the Southern Ocean.
Tropical coastal ecosystems are some of the most biodiverse in the world. Conservation and effective management is critical there to protect globally important populations of iconic and threatened species, as well as providing essential food supply and livelihoods to local communities.
One third of the world's coral reefs are in an area called the Coral Triangle in the South Pacific. These reefs cover over 100,000 sq km and the region supports around 25,000 ‘endemic’ plants (found nowhere else on Earth), 180 endemic threatened birds, 170 endemic threatened mammals and over 100 endemic threatened amphibians. The Coral Triangle also has the highest diversity of coral reef fishes and the highest number of endemic reef fish species in the world - with over 35% of the world's coral reef fish species. We want to protect the spectacular biodiversity of the marine environment here and provide sustainable benefits for coastal communities.
The Atlantic’s biggest coral reef stretches for 1,000km along the coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. We’re helping safeguard coastal communities and reefs in this region from the effects of climate change, as well as depleted fish stocks, habitat loss and declining water quality.
We’re working with governments and coastal communities to secure a healthy marine environment along 4,600km of the Indian Ocean coastlines of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique in East Africa. The open waters, coral reefs, mud flats, rocky shores, seagrass beds and mangrove forests support a rich variety of marine life that needs urgent protection.
We’re also working with fishermen, retailers and the fish processing industry for an ambitious reform of the European Common Fisheries Policy through our More Fish Campaign to promote healthy seas and sustainably caught seafood for the future.
We’re also working hard to influence other EU legislation on the way we govern the use of our seas. EU member states are establishing new ways to monitor the health of our seas under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. New legislation is being considered for Marine Spatial Planning and Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
These laws should consider the needs of the whole marine ecosystem rather than focus on individual human activities such as fishing.
Key issues - for WWF and oceans
Some fishing practices have become a major threat to the health of our oceans, destroying or altering the physical environment and changing the habitat where marine animals live.
The current crisis facing worldwide fish stocks, and increasing reports of the impacts of fishing activities on the wider marine environment, have heightened consumer concerns and raised issues about the fish we eat.
Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform
The European Union voted through the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy in early 2013, following our long-running campaign involving governments, businesses, other environmental organisations and the general public to secure the best deal for the health of our seas. This provides a real possibility that our fisheries will be able to recover from decades of overfishing - and we are committed to working with stakeholders to ensure that the new legislation is implemented.
As the global population continues to increase, demand for seafood is growing rapidly. Consumers can make a difference to the way our fish stocks are managed. By only choosing fish from healthy, responsibly managed sources, you can help drive the market towards sustainable seafood.
Seafood trade is a global business - the UK has imported seafood from over 85 countries around the world. We’re working on sustainable seafood involving a wide range of stakeholders from fisheries, processors, retailers to consumers to help safe guard our precious marine resources and environment.
Aquaculture is an important industry in the UK, and is the fastest growing food production system in the world. Farmed fish and shellfish make up a significant proportion of the fish on retailers shelves and in restaurants.
But the impacts from aquaculture can have an effect on nearby marine environments, so we’ve helped develop a certification scheme called the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) to help reduce the impacts. Look for products with the ASC logo, which will be available soon.
It’s estimated that bycatch - accidental catching of non-target species - represents 40% of global marine catches. Many of these species are threatened or endangered and include dolphins, whales and turtles.
In 2000, global longline fisheries caught more than 250,000 endangered loggerhead turtles and critically endangered leatherback turtles.
Stronger bycatch legislation and incentives for the industry to change are critical to address this issue.
We’re working with governments and industry to get a better understanding of the scale of the issue. We’re also working closely and successfully with the fishing industry to trial the uptake of more selective equipment.
In the Coral Triangle, we’ve been partnering with businesses and local fishing communities to trial and roll out the conversion to ’circle‘ hooks in longline fisheries, which can reduce bycatch rates by up to 90%.
This includes training fishermen in how to remove hooks from turtles using ’de-hookers‘. We’re also strongly advocating transparency and verification systems so that circle-hook caught tuna can be documented along the entire supply chain.
Our significant work on bycatch reduction has already led to important policy changes. At the 2010 Coral Triangle business forum, President Arroyo of the Philippines announced the conversion of the Philippine longline fleets to circle hooks.
Here's a good 10-minute summary filmed by MSC about the urgent need for clear, sustainable fishing standards - to make sure we can protect the world's oceans, sealife and marine ecosystems for future generations...