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The UK has a disproportionate impact on nature and our climate through its global footprint. Commodity-driven deforestation and conversion of other natural ecosystems overseas is a significant driver of our land footprint abroad. 

The UK government has committed to leave the environment in a better state for future generations and promised to protect forests like the Amazon – an essential ally against climate breakdown. Its flagship Environment Bill is a welcome effort to help deliver on these ambitions, but as it stands, it won’t stop critical landscapes like the Amazon and the Cerrado being destroyed to grow food and produce other goods sold right here in the UK.  

Our report examines the potential impacts of the  proposed due diligence regulation on deforestation, land conversion, biodiversity and greenhouse gas emissions arising from UK soy supply chains in Brazil and oil palm supply chains in Indonesia.


  • According to our assessment in Brazil, conversion of 36-59,000 hectares of natural vegetation could be attributable to UK supply chains between 2021-2030. Out of this area over 70% could be legal, according to the most likely scenarios. Therefore, by adopting a legality approach, the UK won’t be meeting its goal of eliminating deforestation and other environmental impacts from its supply chains. 
  • The focus on illegal deforestation only will have a limited impact on overall conversion of other natural ecosystems linked to UK soy supply chains in Brazil.  
  • Limited traceability and transparency in supply chains and the lack of transparency of deforestation and land conversion data in many countires as well as data on legal permits will make it harder for companies to comply with the legislation and for authorities to enforce the law.  
  • A regulation based on producer country laws could potentially have perverse consequences, by incentivising further deregulation of forest and ecosystem protections. This would make compliance easier, but do nothing to remove deforestation and other environmental impacts from UK supply chains.  

Case studies

Deforestation next to a soybean plantation

Soy from Brazil

There are up to 2.1 million hectares of natural vegetation unprotected by the law, and therefore that could be legally deforested, within the studied 133 Brazilian municipalities which directly supply the UK with soy. This is equivalent to an area the size of Wales and stores over one billion tonnes of carbon.  

Of this 2.1 million hectares, based on plausible deforestation and legal compliance scenarios, we estimated that between 2021 and 2030, UK imports of soy from Brazil could result in the conversion of 36-59,000 hectares of vegetation, which stores 18-30 million tonnes of carbon. 

Deforestation in Brazil

Bukit Garam, Kinabatangan, Sabah

Palm oil from Indonesia

There is an elevated risk that oil palm plantations are converting peatlands and protected areas in Kalimantan and Sumatra – which both export significant amounts of palm oil to the UK.   

Lack of publicly available information on deforestation and legal permits, and the complexity of Indonesia’s legal instruments covering deforestation, make it difficult for companies to assess legality.  


Indonesia threatened SpeciesBrazil threatened species


We welcome the UK government’s proposals to remove deforestation from UK supply chains.  

We are calling on government to fulfill its promises and strengthen its proposed due diligence regulation by:

  • Broadening the regulation to cover all conversion (legal and illegal) of all natural ecosystems. 
  • Broadening the regulation to cover all commodities associated with deforestation and land conversion.  
  • Ensuring that effective, dissuasive penalties for non-compliance are in place and enforceable.  

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Our calls to action

Our recommendations for companies, financial institutions and citizens are below. Please see the Summary Report for a more detailed list of asks. 

What can companies do?

Companies’ action to eliminate deforestation and conversion from their supply chains is critical, including by:

  • Setting policies and commitments to eliminate all deforestation and conversion, illegal or illegal, as well as human rights abuses, across their entire supply chains, as soon as possible and no later than 2023, aligned with the Accountability Framework initiative.
  • Requiring and supporting their suppliers to adopt aligned public commitments and policies and strengthening engagement with suppliers.
  • Demanding increased supply chain traceability and transparency throughout their entire supply chains.

What can financial institutions do?

Financial institutions have the power to drive change, starting by:

  • Adopting screening and monitoring processes to make sure that their lending and investments to companies producing, using or trading forest and ecosystem-risk commodities don’t contribute to environmental damage and human rights abuses.
  • Requesting that companies in their portfolios evidence their plans to remove deforestation and conversion from their supply chains as soon as possible and no later than 2023.
  • Reporting publicly on their environmental and social risks and impacts, and on progress in mitigating them (and requesting clients to do so).

What can citizens do?

Citizens can and should do their part, starting by:

  • Writing to your local representative to support policies and laws for more sustainable, deforestation- and conversion-free supply chains and further transparency over international trade deals.
  • Purchasing products that use sustainable ingredients and/or meet a credible certified standard wherever possible, such as Rainforest Alliance, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Fairtrade.
  • Demanding greater transparency and action from your supermarket and favourite brands to make sure the products you enjoy are not associated with deforestation, conversion, or human rights abuses.
  • Eating more sustainably (for example, through introducing more plants into your diet, eating less meat, wasting less food, and where possible, choosing locally sourced options).